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Necessary for deadlock a to exist.
Each processor has exclusive use of its resources.
A process never releases resources it holds until it has finished using them.
Each process holds resources while waiting for other processes to release theirs.
Cycle of waiting processes.
Each process in the cycle waits for resources that the next process owns and will not relinquish.
How to avoid deadlocks?
Last modification: November 15, 1996